大自然中的太阳能,对于人类来说水,可以说是取之不尽用之不竭的一种天然免费能源。人类主动利用太阳能,也是今后解决地球环境日益恶化的一条有效途径。

以前,曾有一篇“把冬天里的太阳光温暖留下”,今天,再发一篇对应的内容“主动利用夏季炎热”一文,与对此感兴趣的朋友们进行分享交流。

夏季炎热,跟冬季寒冷一样,属于是一种大自然中的自然规律现象,人类自然无法逃避,那么也只有想法设法进行主动应对的份了。

在过去,人们对付夏季炎热,基本上都是被动地去适应,最终结果,自然是让这些巨大的热量白白地浪费掉。

后来,随着人类科学技术的不断进步,表现在人们居住的住宅上,开始有了一些主动应用的行为,比如,在住宅屋顶上,安装太阳能集热系统(太阳能热水系统);在屋顶上,安装光伏太阳能发电系统;当然,在家庭生活中,还有在地面上使用太阳灶的一些情况。

除了上述列举的太阳能的利用情况之外,在西方国家中,这些年,还有一种所谓的“太阳能烟囱”的概念出现,这也是人类主动利用太阳能的另外一种新鲜思路。

主动利用夏季中的炎热,让住宅中的空气流动,形成自然的通风,通过这一办法,将室内的一部分热量带走,来满足人们对居住住宅舒适性的一些要求,同时还能起到节省能源、减少二氧化碳气体排放的作用,对地球的环境来说,也有不少好处。

下面,就让我们来初步认识一下西方国家中的所谓“太阳能烟囱”这一说法。

关于太阳能烟囱

文字资料来源(图片除外):

A solar chimney – often referred to as a thermal chimney – is a way of improving the natural ventilation of buildings by using convection of air heated by passive solar energy. A simple description of a solar chimney is that of a vertical shaft utilizing solar energy to enhance the natural stack ventilation through a building.

(“太阳能烟囱”—— 通常被称为“热烟囱”—— 是通过使用免费太阳能增强热空气的对流,来提高建筑物自然通风的一种方法。“太阳能烟囱”,简单描述就是,通过建造“太阳能垂直竖井”来增强自然通风。)

(英语)Heat Exchange(热交换)

(波兰语)wymiana ciepla(热交换)

(英语)Heat Exchange(热交换)

(华氏95度=5/9×(95-32)=5/9×58=35摄氏度;华氏55度=5/9×(55-32)=5/9×23=12.8摄氏度)

COOLING(冷却 / 制冷)

The solar chimney has been in use for centuries, particularly in the Middle east and Near East by the Persians, as well as in Europe by the Romans.

(太阳能烟囱,在世界上来说,已经使用了几百年,特别是在中东和近东地区的波斯人,以及在欧洲的罗马人。)

Description(描述)

In its simplest form, the solar chimney consists of a black-painted chimney.

(最简单的太阳能烟囱形式,是一个被漆成黑色的烟囱。)

High temperatures increase updraft(高气温增加上升气流)

metal absorber with black selective coating(金属吸收使用黑色选择性涂层)

Rotating turbine(涡轮转动)

Insulation(保温隔热 / 绝缘)

Damper(风门 / 闸板 /  阻尼器)

Replacement air drawn from cool side of house(更换空气从房子的凉爽边)

During the day solar energy heats the chimney and the air within it, creating an updraft of air in the chimney.

(白天,太阳能加热烟囱和其内部的空气,让烟囱中的空气,形成上升的气流。)

The suction created at the chimney's base can be used to ventilate and cool the building below.

(在烟囱的基础上,产生的吸力,可以用来解决建筑物下部的通风降温。)

In most parts of the world it is easier to harness wind power for such ventilation as with a wind catcher, but on hot windless days a Solar chimney can provide ventilation where otherwise there would be none.

(在世界上的大多数地区,很容易利用风力发电解决通风问题,但是在炎热无风的日子里,太阳能烟囱,可以提供通风,否则就没有。)

There are however a number of solar chimney variations.

(然而,有一些太阳能烟囱的变化。)

The basic design elements of a solar chimney are:

(太阳能烟囱的基本设计要素是:)

The solar collector area: (太阳能集热器区域)

This can be located in the top part of the chimney or can include the entire shaft.

(这可以位于烟囱的顶部或可以包括整个竖井。)

The orientation, type of glazing, insulation and thermal properties of this element are crucial for harnessing, retaining and utilizing solar gains

(玻璃的定位、类型、绝缘和热性能利用这个元素是至关重要的,保留和利用太阳能收益)

The main ventilation shaft: (主通风竖井)

The location, height, cross section and the thermal properties of this structure are also very important.

(位置、高度、截面和热学性质的这种结构也是非常重要的。)

The inlet and outlet air apertures: (进口和出口的空气孔)

The sizes, location as well as aerodynamic aspects of these elements are also significant.

(大小、位置以及这些元素的空气动力学方面也很重要。)

Solar chimneys are painted black so that they absorb the sun's heat more effectively.

(太阳能烟囱涂成黑色,目的是使他们更有效地吸收太阳的热量。)

When the air inside the chimney is heated, it rises and pulls cold air out from under the ground via the heat exchange tubes.

(当烟囱内的空气被加热时,它会通过地下的热交换管,从地下升起,并将凉爽的冷空气从地下抽出来。)

Solar chimney and sustainable architecture(太阳能烟囱和可持续建筑)

This solar chimney draws air through a geothermal heat exchange to provide passive home cooling.

(这个太阳能烟囱吸引空气通过地热交换提供被动冷却。)

(华氏95度=5/9×(95-32)=5/9×58=35摄氏度;华氏55度=5/9×(55-32)=5/9×23=12.8摄氏度)

Solar chimneys, also called heat chimneys or heat stacks, can also be used in architectural settings to decrease the energy used by mechanical systems (systems that heat and cool the building through mechanical means).

(太阳能烟囱,也被称为热烟囱或热竖井,可也用于在建筑设置减少能源使用的机械系统)(通过机械装置加热和冷却建筑物的系统)

Air conditioning and mechanical ventilation have been for decades the standard method of environmental control in many building types, especially offices, in developed countries.

(在发达国家,尤其是办公大楼,空调和机械通风,在许多建筑类型的环境控制上,已经是数十年的标准做法。)

Pollution and reallocating energy supplies have led to a new environmental approach in building design.

(通过能源分配,减少环境污染,是建筑设计上的一种新的环境方法。)

Innovative technologies along with bioclimatic principles and traditional design strategies are often combined to create new and potentially successful design solutions.

(创新技术以及生物气候学原则和传统设计策略往往相结合,创建新的和潜在的成功设计解决方案。)

The solar chimney is one of these concepts currently explored by scientists as well as designers, mostly through research and experimentation.

(太阳能烟囱是目前科学家和设计师们探索的一个概念,主要是通过研究和实验来探索的。)

A solar chimney can serve many purposes.

(太阳能烟囱可以达到很多目的。)

Direct gain warms air inside the chimney causing it to rise out the top and drawing air in from the bottom.

(在烟囱内,直接获得热量的空气,使它上升到顶部,并从底部吸入空气。)

This drawing of air can be used to ventilate a home or office, to draw air through a geothermal heat exchange, or to ventilate only a specific area such as a composting toilet.

(此图反映,可以将通过地热交换的吸入空气,用于家庭或办公室的通风,或通风只是一个特定区域,如堆肥厕所。)

Natural ventilation can be created by providing vents in the upper level of a building to allow warm air to rise by convection and escape to the outside.

(自然通风可以通过在建筑物上层提供通风孔,让温暖的空气通过对流上升,并逃到外面去创造出来。)

At the same time cooler air can be drawn in through vents at the lower level.

(同时较冷的空气可以通过在较低的水平通风口被吸入。)

Trees may be planted on that side of the building to provide shade for cooler outside air.

(在建筑物的一侧可以种植树木,为室外空气提供阴凉处。)

minimise solar gains with passive shading(利用被动遮阳尽量减少太阳能的吸收)

RFI=reflective foil insulation(反射箔保温隔热 / 反射箔绝缘)

This natural ventilation process can be augmented by a solar chimney.

(自然通风可以通过一个太阳能烟囱来增强。)

The chimney has to be higher than the roof level, and has to be constructed on the wall facing the direction of the sun.

(烟囱要高于屋顶水平,并要建立在面向太阳的方向的墙上。)

Absorption of heat from the sun can be increased by using a glazed surface on the side facing the sun.

(从太阳吸收的热量可以通过面向太阳的光滑表面来增加)

Heat absorbing material can be used on the opposing side.

(吸热材料可用于相对侧。)

The size of the heat-absorbing surface is more important than the diameter of the chimney.

(吸热表面的大小比烟囱的直径更重要。)

A large surface area allows for more effective heat exchange with the air necessary for heating by solar radiation.

(一个大的表面积允许更有效的热交换与必要的空气通过太阳辐射加热。)

Heating of the air within the chimney will enhance convection, and hence airflow through the chimney.

(烟囱中的空气的加热将增强对流,因此气流会通过烟囱。)

Openings of the vents in the chimney should face away from the direction of the prevailing wind.

(烟囱上的通风开口应背离流行风的方向。)

To further maximize the cooling effect, the incoming air may be led through underground ducts before it is allowed to enter the building.

(为了进一步提升冷却效果,可能导致,引入的空气,需要通过地下管道之后,才能获准进入楼内。)

The solar chimney can be improved by integrating it with a trombe wall.

( “太阳能烟囱”可通过与“特伦布墙”整合得到改善。)

在冬季,将南面特伦布墙墙体上部、下部的通风口开启,由于接受光照之后受热,特伦布墙和最外侧玻璃之间的空腔中里面的空气温度会增加,因而空气会上升流动起来,因而可以持续将室内空气循环升温,这样就可以起到增加室内温度的作用。

在夏季,特伦布墙和最外侧玻璃之间的空腔中,由于接受光照之后受热,导致里面的空气温度增加,因而上升流动起来,这时,室内温度较高的空气,由于吸力的作用,因而经过南面特伦布墙墙体下部的通风口,进入特伦布墙和最外侧玻璃之间的空腔中,因而可以持续将室内高温空气排出,进而吸入北面室外温度较低的空气加以补充,起到降低室内温度的作用。

The added advantage of this design is that the system may be reversed during the cold season, providing solar heating instead.

(这个设计的增加的好处是在寒冷的季节期间,系统也可以被扭转,改为提供太阳能加热。)

A variation of the solar chimney concept is the solar attic.

(太阳能烟囱的概念的一个变体是太阳能阁楼。)

In a hot sunny climate the attic space is often blazingly hot in the summer.

(在一个炎热的阳光充足的气候阁楼空间在夏天通常很热。)

In a conventional building this presents a problem as it leads to the need for increased air conditioning.

(在传统建筑这提出了一个问题,因为它会导致需要增加空调。)

By integrating the attic space with a solar chimney, the hot air in the attic can be put to work.

(通过将阁楼空间和太阳能烟囱结合在一起,阁楼上的热空气可以工作。)

It can help the convection in the chimney, improving ventilation.

(它可以帮助烟囱内的对流,改善通风。)

CAD (TAS) Solar Chimney model

(CAD(TAS)太阳能烟囱模型)

The use of a solar chimney may benefit natural ventilation and passive cooling strategies of buildings thus help reduce energy use, CO2 emissions and pollution in general.

(太阳能烟囱的使用,有利于建筑的自然通风和被动冷却策略,从而帮助减少能源消耗、二氧化碳排放和环境污染。)

Potential benefits regarding natural ventilation and use of solar chimneys are:

(自然通风和使用太阳能烟囱的潜在好处是:)

improved ventilation rates on still, hot days

(炎热的日子里,依然可以改善通风效率)

reduced reliance on wind and wind driven ventilation

(减少对自然天气下的风和机械风力驱动通风的依赖)

improved control of air flow though a building

(改进建筑物的气流控制方式)

greater choice of air intake (i.e. leeward side of building)

(更多的进气口的选择(即建筑背风侧))

improved air quality and reduced noise levels in urban areas

(在城市地区,改善空气质量和减少噪音)

increased night time ventilation rates

(增加的夜间通风换气次数)

ventilation of narrow, small spaces with minimal exposure to external elements

(窄、小空间的通风,可以面临最小的外部元素)

Potential benefits regarding passive cooling may include:

(关于被动冷却的潜在好处可能包括︰)

improved passive cooling during warm season (mostly on still, hot days)

(在温暖的季节,改进的被动冷却(主要仍然是炎热的日子))

improved night cooling rates

(改进夜间冷却速度)

enhanced performance of thermal mass (cooling, cool storage)

(提高热质量的性能(冷却、蓄冷))

improved thermal comfort (improved air flow control, reduced draughts)

(改进热舒适(改善空气流量控制,减少通风))

Precedent Study: The Environmental Building

(先例研究:环保大楼)

The Building Research Establishment (BRE) office building in Garston, Watford, United Kingdom,

(加斯顿,沃特福德,联合王国,建设研究建立 (BRE) 办公大楼)

incorporates solar assisted passive ventilation stacks as part of its ventilation strategy.

(采用太阳能辅助被动通风烟囱作为其通气策略的一部分。)

Designed by architects Feilden Clegg Bradley, the BRE offices aim to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions by 30% from current best practice guidelines and sustain comfortable environmental conditions without the use of air conditioning. The passive ventilation stacks, solar shading, and hollow concrete slabs with embedded under floor cooling are key features of this building. Ventilation and heating systems are controlled by the building management system (BMS) while a degree of user override is provided to adjust conditions to occupants' needs.

The building utilizes five vertical shafts as an integral part of the ventilation and cooling strategy. The main components of these stacks are a south facing glass-block wall, thermal mass walls and stainless steel round exhausts rising a few meters above roof level. The chimneys are connected to the curved hollow concrete floor slabs which are cooled via night ventilation. Pipes embedded in the floor can provide additional cooling utilizing groundwater.

On warm windy days air is drawn in through passages in the curved hollow concrete floor slabs. Stack ventilation naturally rising out through the stainless steel chimneys enhances the air flow through the building. The movement of air across the chimney tops enhances the stack effect. During warm, still days, the building relies mostly on the stack effect while air is taken from the shady north side of the building. Low-energy fans in the tops of the stacks can also be used to improve airflow.

Overnight, control systems enable ventilation paths through the hollow concrete slab removing the heat stored during the day, which then remains cold for the following day. The exposed curved ceiling gives more surface area than a flat ceiling would, acting as a heat sink, again providing summer cooling. Research based on actual performance measurements of the passive stacks found that they enhanced the cooling ventilation of the space during warm and still days and may also have the potential to assist night-time cooling due to their thermally massive structure.

Passive down-draft cool tower(被动下吸式冷却塔)

A technology closely related to the solar chimney is the evaporative down-draft cooltower. In areas with a hot, arid climate this approach may contribute to a sustainable way to provide air conditioning for buildings.

Evaporation of moisture from the pads on top of the Toguna buildings built by the Dogon people of Mali, Africa contribute to the coolness felt by the men who rest underneath. The women's buildings on the outskirts of town are functional as more conventional solar chimneys.

The principle is to allow water to evaporate at the top of a tower, either by using evaporative cooling pads or by spraying water. Evaporation cools the incoming air, causing a downdraft of cool air that will bring down the temperature inside the building.[5] Airflow can be increased by using a solar chimney on the opposite side of the building to help in venting hot air to the outside.[6] This concept has been used for the Visitor Center of Zion National Park. The Visitor Center was designed by the High Performance Buildings Research of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

The principle of the downdraft cooltower has been proposed for solar power generation as well. (See Energy tower for more information.)

What is a Solar Chimney?

(什么是太阳能烟囱?)

资料来源:

-and-blogs/comfort-station-solar-chimney-construction/

What is a Solar Chimney?

Solar Chimney – How it works

(太阳能烟囱 —— 它是如何工作的)

The new Caroline Street Comfort Station features state-of-the-art “green” building designs including the use of solar chimneys to provide light and airflow that negate the need for air conditioning or lighting during the day. Construction update photos are attached below.

What is a Solar Chimney? Wikipedia

A solar chimney — often referred to as a thermal chimney — is a way of improving the natural ventilation of buildings by using convection of air heated by passive solar energy. A simple description of a solar chimney is that of a vertical shaft utilizing solar energy to enhance the natural stack ventilation through a building. The solar chimney has been in use for centuries, particularly in the Middle east and Near East by the Persians, as well as in Europe by the Romans.

Company Information

Allen & Shariff provides Engineering, Construction, and Project Management services to clients worldwide. Allen & Shariff services include MEP Design, Commissioning, General Contracting, Project Management, Green & Energy Consulting, and Project Financing. Allen & Shariff was founded in 1993 as an engineering consulting firm based in Columbia, MD. The company has evolved into a multi-discisplince professional service provider worldwide. The skills of our people, our proven sub-consultants, and our commitment to quality service and client satisfaction make the Allen & Shariff team a valued and trusted partner.

======================================

Air Conditioner Heat Exchange with Solar Chimney

(太阳能烟囱空调热交换)

Positive use of natural energy

(积极利用自然能源)

Photovoltaic power generation(光伏发电);Solar chimney(太阳能烟囱);Night purge(夜间净化);

Simple air flow(简单的空气流 );

South(南面);Cool heat tube(热管冷却);Using rainwater(雨水利用);North(北面)

关于Night purge(夜间净化) ——

Night-Purge Ventilation (or "night flushing") keeps window and other passive ventilation openings closed during the day, but open at night to flush warm air out of the building and cool thermal mass for the next day.

(夜间净化(或“夜间冲洗”)保持窗户和其他被动通风开口,在白天关闭,但在夜间开放,以刷新建筑物的热空气和冷却第二天的热量。)

Night-purge ventilation is useful when daytime air temperatures are so high that bringing unconditioned air into the building would not cool people down, but where nighttime air is cool or cold. This strategy can provide passive ventilation in weather that might normally be considered too hot for it.

(夜间通风是有用的时候,白天的气温很高,带着无条件的空气进入大楼使人不平静,但在夜间空气凉爽或寒冷。这种策略可以提供被动通风的天气,通常可能被认为是太热了。)

During the day, thermal mass soaks up heat; at night it is cooled by outside air.

(白天,热质吸收热量;晚上则是由外部空气冷却 )

Successful night-purge ventilation is determined by how much heat energy is removed from a building by bringing in nighttime air, without using active HVAC cooling and ventilation.

(成功的夜间净化通风确定多少热量能量将删除从一幢大楼,使在夜晚时间的空气,而不使用主动暖通空调冷却和通风)

(晚上使用自然通风净化 - 它是如何工作的?)

Natural night ventilation is a passive cooling method, driven by the natural driving forces of the wind and/or thermally (stack) generated pressures. The heat absorbed by a building's exposed thermal mass during the day is released to the indoor air at night, after which it is purged by night ventilation. Meanwhile, external fresh air cools down the thermal mass which then acts as a heat sink during the following day. The night flushing involves automatically operable windows or louvres being opened for a pre-set period of time over night, allowing a natural air flow through the building.

Why should night purging be incorporated into your building?

(为什么要把夜间净化纳入你的建筑中? )

Night purge ventilation can help reduce the building operating costs, with hot and stale air being replaced with fresh night time air. This reduces the need for the HVAC system to be activated as soon as the building is occupied in the morning. The thermal mass of the building will be cooled, providing a fresher and cooler environment for occupants.

If hot and stale air is not removed, not only will the room feel stuffy, but airborne pollutants, such as carbon dioxide, may reach alarming levels. This can be potentially harmful for the occupants with symptoms such as headaches, dry and itchy eyes or a sore throat developing. In turn this can have a negative effect on both productivity and satisfaction levels with the internal evironment.

Outlet(排气口);Third floor(三楼);Second floor(二楼);First floor(一楼);Inlet(进气口);

Hot Plate(热板);Solar Pond(太阳能池)

Schematic diagram of solar chimney and cooling cavity.

(太阳能烟囱和冷却腔示意图)

Solar Chimney(太阳能烟囱);South Wall(南墙);Insulation(绝缘 / 保温隔热)

Absorber Plate(吸热板);Warm Air(温暖的空气);

Water Tank(储水箱);Ambient Warm Air(周围温暖的空气 );

Spray Nozzle(喷雾喷嘴);Falling Water Film(落下的水膜 /水帘);Cooling Cavity(冷却空腔)

Valve(阀门);Circulating Pump(循环泵);Drainage(排水);

Cool and Humid air(凉爽和潮湿的空气)

太阳能烟囱在国外住宅建造中的应用实例——

DEDICATED TO THE FIREFIGHTERS OF THE WORLD(献给世界的消防员)

YOUR DEVOTION TO DUTY AND DEDICATION TO SERVICE ARE APPRECIATED BEYOND THE CAPACITY THAT MERE WORDS CAN DESCRIBE(你对责任的奉献和对服务的奉献超出了单纯的语言所能描述的能力 )

Black Diamond Builders(黑钻石建设者 );NATIONAL(机构组织的全国总部)

Allen & Shariff(艾伦和谢里夫)

DESIGN BUILD MANAGE(设计建造管理)

Allen & Shariff Engineering, LLC. Salisbury MD.(艾伦谢里夫工程有限责任公司。美国马里兰州索尔兹伯里。)